Chronic Kidney Disease Is Still a Major Health Challenge in Africa

By Irene Labuschagne, Stellenbosch University and Johan Nel

Close to three million people suffering from chronic kidney failure across the world receive renal replacement therapy every year. But between 4.9 million and 9.7 million more still need treatment. And at least two million die because they cannot access it.

Kidneys filter wastes and excess fluids from the blood which are then excreted in the urine. When someone has chronic kidney disease, their kidneys are unable to perform these tasks and they require renal replacement therapy in the form of dialysis or kidney replacement.

Chronic kidney disease is a global problem with about 10% of the world's population suffering from the disease.

But in sub-Saharan Africa, about 14% of the adult population suffers from chronic kidney disease . Between 1999 and 2006 South Africa saw a 67% rise in deaths as a result of chronic kidney disease.

There are three main challenges with managing chronic kidney disease on the continent. Firstly lifestyle changes have resulted in increasing obesity rates which in turn increases the risk of kidney disease. Secondly, there is the link between HIV and kidney failure and thirdly, there are treatment failures.

Many patients with kidney failure either incur catastrophic out of pocket medical bills, or they die. If the underlying challenges aren't addressed the problems that come with expected increases in chronic kidney disease on the continent will only get worse.

Obesity's role

Obesity is one of the most potent risk factors for people developing kidney disease. This is because it increases the risk of people developing diabetes and hypertension - two of the major risks for chronic kidney disease.

The rise in obesity rates has been rapid, substantial and widespread. As a result, obesity has become a major public health epidemic in both the developed and developing world.

The estimations are that by 2025, obesity will affect 18% of men and more than 21% of women worldwide while severe obesity will affect 6% of men and 9% of women.

On the continent South Africa has the highest number of overweight and obese people. Close to 70% of South Africa's women are overweight or obese, according to a study by The Lancet. More 25% of girls are also overweight or obese.

The Lancet study found that 70% of South African women are overweight and 42% are obese. The problem is also acute in children. There is combined overweight and obesity prevalence of 13.5% for South African children aged six to 14 years. This is higher than the global prevalence of 10% in schoolchildren, but lower than current levels in the US.


If action is not taken to halt this epidemic, the expected increase in overweight and obese South African children will become a major concern.

There are very specific dietary and lifestyle changes that are linked to obesity. This includes patterns of increased eating, drinking and smoking along with reduced physical activity, and a shift to a diet high in sugar, salt and saturated fat.

Evidence shows that people with a higher weight-to-height ratio - more commonly known as a body mass index - have a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, osteoarthritis and chronic kidney disease.

Expensive treatment

Treatment of chronic kidney disease on the African continent is dire. Of the world's population that needed renal replacement therapy, only 1% of those who received treatment lived in Africa.